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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2022
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-27

Online since Monday, June 27, 2022

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Integrating epigenetics in modern periodontology – Current concepts p. 1
Nirma Yadav
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Root canal morphology and effects on root canal preparation p. 2
Salwa Yammine
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Oral and maxillofacial imaging in digital dentistry p. 4
Monica Piña D'Abreu
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Comparative assessment of morphological alterations in the dentin surface by sodium fluoride, 980 nm diode laser, and their combined application for use in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity: An in vitro scanning electron microscopy study p. 5
Shweta Tanwar, Amit Kumar, Rajesh Chetiwal
Context: Lasers have been used as one of the most promising new modalities for dentin hypersensitivity. A synergistic action of lasers in association with desensitizing agents can favor the permanence of the desensitizer for a longer time than when they are used alone. Aims: The present study was aimed to evaluate the morphological characteristics of dentin surface by scanning electron microscopy after fluoride application and irradiation with 980 nm diode laser and their combined application. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolars were collected, prepared, and randomized into three groups. Group A involved tooth treated with sodium fluoride (NaF); Group B involved tooth irradiated by 980 nm GaAlAs (diode) laser; and Group C consisted of tooth sections irradiated by a diode laser with prior application of NaF. The morphological alterations were evaluated and compared using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for multiple group comparisons, and the post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results: Group C, the fluoride-laser treated group, showed the lowest diameter of dentinal tubules (0.077 ± 0.021 μm) and had significantly the lowest number of open dentine tubules. Dunn's multiple comparison tests revealed that Group C had statistically significant tubule diameter reduction and had the lowest number of open tubules compared to both Group A and Group B (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0007, respectively). In addition, Group C had significantly greater intertubular distance when compared to both Group A and Group B (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The 980 nm diode laser presents a promising new potential for treating dentin hypersensitivity, both alone and in conjunction with desensitizing agents. However, clinical trials are required to use it in regular clinical practice.
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Mouth opening range for Jordanian population and its relation to gender, age, height, and weight p. 12
Mirvet Mohammed Hawwa
Aim: Maximum mouth opening (MMO) is an important parameter in the assessment of several clinical situations, and its measured value is documented to have gender, age, and anthropometric variation. Background: This study measures the average value of MMO in a sample of the Jordanian population. MMO might be different for different regions of the world and is important for all dental disciplines. We attempt to find correlations between MMO and body characteristics such as gender, age, body weight, and height. Materials and Methods: A total of 565 Jordanian patients (191 males and 374 females; aged 3–70 years) were randomly selected for this cross-sectional study. Mouth opening was measured using a calibrated ruler between the incisal edges of the upper and lower central incisors (interincisal length), and weight and height were measured using a medical scale. In addition, age and gender were recorded. Patients were informed of the study and agreed to participate. Statistical differences of MMO between male and female patients in each age group were assessed using the t-test, the correlation between the MMO and body weight and height was assessed using a Pearson correlation coefficient and simple linear regression using the SPSS program. Results and Conclusions: The mean MMO across the sample was 45 ± 4.78 mm with a range of 36–61 mm. The mean MMO in males was 45.7 ± 5.2 mm, varied from females, which was 44.65 ± 4.4 mm in all age groups with the level of significance of (P = 0.013). No significant relation was found between age and MMO with a P of (>0.05), but a significant correlation was found between MMO and body weight and height with a P of (<0.01).
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Apthous ulcers: Its prevalence and distribution according to gender and site in different age groups-A descriptive study p. 16
Amit Kumar, Divya Kashyap
Objective: Recurrent aphthous ulcer, also known as aphthous stomatitis or canker sores, is the most common idiopathic in nature inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa, causing a great deal of pain and discomfort to the patient. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of aphthous ulcers and their distribution according to gender and site in different age groups. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted over a period of 7 months on patients reporting to the Dental Outpatient Department of GMC, Badaun, who came for a routine dental checkup. A pro forma was created, which contained complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients, namely recorded data for age, gender, and site affected were analyzed using the SPSS program. Results: Out of 7400 patients, 291 were diagnosed with recurrent aphthous ulcers, making its overall prevalence to be 3.93%. Cases were found to be higher in females (50.86%) than in males (49.14%). Maximum cases were reported in the second decade of life (36.77%). The tongue was found to be the most common site affected. Conclusion: The present study has provided relevant information regarding the prevalence and distribution of recurrent aphthous ulcers that will contribute to the better understanding and consequent management of the disease.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding sterilization protocol among dental students at Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh: A percentage-based study p. 20
Vishal Mehrotra, Shazia Aslam, Kriti Garg, Rahul Srivastava, Pallavi Sinha, Jyoti Kiran
Context: Infection control and prevention is an major part of patient care. Concerns about the possible spread of blood-borne diseases and the impact of emerging highly contagious respiratory and other illnesses require practitioners to establish, evaluate, continually update, and monitor their infection prevention and control strategies and protocols. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental students about sterilization protocol. Settings and Design: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. Subjects and Methods: A total of 220 dental students comprising undergraduates and postgraduates participated in the survey where they were provided to fill a modified pretested, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 10 questions. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were collected, compiled, arranged systematically, and analyzed in terms of percentage and frequencies. Participant's response was calculated and expressed as percentages and frequency. Results: The clinical dental students showed a positive level of awareness, knowledge, and practice toward the sterilization protocols and infection control in their day-to-day practice. Conclusions: Dental care professionals are at an increased risk of cross-infection as well as its transmission while treating the patients. This study is based on to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental students about sterilization protocol.
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Biological restoration – Nature's own alternative for primary care p. 25
Krishna Patil, Sujatha Paranna, Buneet Kaur, Smita Patil, Siddharth Shinde
In humans, especially in childhood, the more prevalent disease is dental caries. Dental caries can extensively destroy the tooth structure. Extensive loss of the tooth structure and premature loss of the primary tooth can lead to loss of vertical dimension, developing habits such as tongue thrusting and mouth breathing that may lead to malocclusion in future. The treatment of mutilated primary teeth should adequately reestablish the anatomy of the tooth, which helps to maintain the mastication, phonation, esthetics, and acts as a natural space maintainer. It is always challenging for the pediatric dentist to satisfactorily restore these teeth to maintain space, esthetics, and function. In recent years, both children and their parents have given priority to esthetics over primary dental care. This demands the innovation and the development of newer treatment options that should be biological and conservative. Hence, natural teeth are increasingly being used as a restorative material to treat damaged teeth with this desire for innovation. As a result, here we report a case of a severely mutilated primary tooth of a 2½-year-old child treated with the technique of biological restoration. This biological restoration procedure involves bonding a sterile dental structure to a tooth that needs treatment.
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